The cold is a viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory tract which primarily affects.
1. Cold
The common cold also known as nasopharyngitis, rhinopharyngitis, acute coryza,head cold, or simply a cold is a viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory tract which primarily affects the nose.Symptoms include coughing, sore throat, runny nose, sneezing, and fever which usually resolve in seven to ten days, with some symptoms lasting up to three weeks. Well over 200 virus strains are implicated in the cause of the common cold; the rhinoviruses are the most common.

Upper respiratory tract infections are loosely divided by the areas they affect, with the common cold primarily affecting the nose, the throat pharyngitis, and the sinuses sinusitis, occasionally involving either or both eyes via conjunctivitis. Symptoms are mostly due to the bodys immune response to the infection rather than to tissue destruction by the viruses themselves. The primary method of prevention is by hand washing with some evidence to support the effectiveness of wearing face masks. The common cold may occasionally lead to pneumonia, either viral pneumonia or secondary bacterial pneumonia.

No cure for the common cold exists, but the symptoms can be treated. It is the most frequent infectious disease in humans with the average adult getting two to three colds a year and the average child getting between six and twelve. These infections have been with humanity since antiquity.

2. Who Gets Cold
Cold sores are caused by the herpes simplex virus HSV. There are two types of herpes simplex virus: HSV 1 and HSV 2. Both virus types can cause sores around the mouth herpes labialis and on the genitals genital herpes.
The herpes simplex virus usually enters the body through a break in the skin around or inside the mouth. It is usually spread when a person touches a cold sore or touches infected fluid such as from sharing eating utensils or razors, kissing an infected person, or touching that persons saliva. A parent who has a cold sore often spreads the infection to his or her child in this way. Cold sores can also be spread to other areas of the body.
The first symptoms of cold sores may include pain around your mouth and on your lips, a fever, a sore throat, or swollen glands in your neck or other parts of the body. Small children sometimes drool before cold sores appear. After the blisters appear, the cold sores usually break open, leak a clear fluid, and then crust over and disappear after several days to 2 weeks. For some people, cold sores can be very painful.
Some people have the virus but dont get cold sores. They have no symptoms.
3. Symptoms
Symptoms of a common cold usually appear about one to three days after exposure to a cold causing virus. Signs and symptoms of a common cold may include:
  • Runny or stuffy nose
  • Itchy or sore throat
  • Cough
  • Congestion
  • Slight body aches or a mild headache
  • Sneezing
  • Watery eyes
  • Low grade fever
  • Mild fatigue
    The discharge from your nose may become thicker and yellow or green in color as a common cold runs its course. What makes a cold different from other viral infections is that you generally wont have a high fever. Youre also unlikely to experience significant fatigue from a common cold.
  • 4. Types of cold
    Types of cold viruses
    More than 200 types of viruses can cause a cold. Those most responsible belong to one of two groups:
    Because a number of viruses can cause a cold, its possible to have several colds, one after the other, because a different virus causes each one.
    The viruses that cause a cold affect the lining of the nose and throat causing symptoms such as sore throat, runny nose and sneezing.
    Types of flu viruses
    Flu influenza is caused by types A, B or rarely C influenza virus. Only types A and B cause major outbreaks and severe disease, while type C can cause an illness in children similar to the common cold.
    Most people are infected with influenza A virus which has caused flu pandemics worldwide spread of a new disease and most epidemics widespread occurrence of an infectious disease in a community at a particular time. You can catch flu all year round, but it is especially common in winter. When this happens it is called seasonal flu.
    Influenza A viruses are found in many species although water birds are its natural host. Types of influenza A viruses you may have heard of include Avian Bird flu and H1N1 Swine flu. Influenza B virus is primarily a human disease.
    5. Call Your Doctor About a Cold If
  • You notice an inability to swallow.
  • You have a sore throat for more than 2 or 3 days, particularly if it seems to be worsening.
  • You have an earache.
  • You have a stiff neck or sensitivity to bright lights.
  • Youre pregnant or nursing.
  • Your newborn or infant has cold symptoms.
  • Your throat hurts and your temperature is 101 degrees F or higher.
  • Your cold symptoms worsen after the third day. You may have a bacterial infection.

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